Three into One: Twentieth-Century Scottish Verse in Translation Anthologies

By Paul Barnaby

  • Reprinted from 'Translation and literature', v.9, pt.2, 2000 by permission of Edinburgh University Press

The anthology on which Iain Galbraith is presently at work will be the first retrospective overview of twentieth-century Scottish poetry to appear in translation. Over the last twenty-five years, however, eleven translation anthologies have been published featuring selections of contemporary Scottish verse or of Scottish poetry across the ages (these are listed in my Appendix). To what extent, then, have these met Iain Galbraith's demand that a translation anthology reflect not only the trilingualism of Scottish literature but the polyvocal, synthetic character of twentieth-century verse in all three of Scotland's languages? A study of the translation strategies employed suggests that editors and translators have largely failed to engage with the linguistic complexity of Scottish verse, and highlights ideological and institutional factors that militate against the recognition and translation of heteroglossia.

Only a minority of these eleven anthologies (the first translation anthologies of Scottish verse since the mid-nineteenth century) represent Scottish literature as a multilingual tradition. Only four feature translations from English, Scots, and Gaelic alike (those listed in the Appendix for 1979, 1982, 1992, and 1998). One, an Israeli volume of 1988, includes both English and Scots verse. Two apiece limit their selections to verse in English (1992 and 1998), in Scots (1976 and 1997), and in Gaelic (1986 and 1993).

Only two of the monolingual anthologists assert that the language represented constitutes the authentic tradition of Scottish verse. For the editors of La nuova poesia scozzese, 1997, Scots is the only language in which Scottish poets can express their deepest emotions (p. 9). Those of Six poètes écossais, 1991, argue, conversely, that the media-driven spread of English has not only irretrievably distanced Scots from everyday discourse, rendering it an essentially artificial medium, but has thwarted hopes for a revival of the Gaelic tradition (p. 7). Other anthologists acknowledge the co-existence of three linguistic traditions but justify a restricted scope on grounds ranging from the cultural-political (fear lest an already elided Scots or Gaelic tradition be further marginalized in a trilingual anthology), to the pragmatic (publishers' policy, the intended use of the anthology within an English Literature curriculum), to the subjective (individual taste, linguistic knowledge, or links with Scottish writers).

Yet it is well to remember that the recognition that Scottish literature united three linguistic traditions was by no means a rapid conquest of the twentieth-century Renaissance, as can be seen by turning to the compilers of Scottish poetry anthologies for the domestic market. MacDiarmid in The Golden Treasury of Scottish Poetry (London, 1940) prides himself on being the first anthologist to place Gaelic verse within a national canon. In point of fact, he was pre-empted by W. MacNeile Dixon, who included eleven Gaelic poets in Scots translation in his Edinburgh Book of Scottish Verse 1399-1900 (London, 1910) and regretted that a failure to find more translations 'of sufficient quality to reproduce the formal music and characteristically Celtic genius of Gaelic verse' had prevented him from including as much Gaelic as a truly 'representative' anthology should contain (p. xli). MacDiarmid is doubtless thinking, however, of such anthologies as Sir George Douglas's Book of Scottish Poetry (London, 1911), which includes no Gaelic verse, Douglas judging it 'outside the sphere of this collection' (p. 6). Likewise, R. L. Mackie, in the introduction to his A Book of Scottish Verse (1934), passionately sides with Edwin Muir in his debate with MacDiarmid over the viability of Scots as a literary language, but passes under silence the decision to omit Gaelic poetry.

MacDiarmid, however, includes only pre-twentieth-century Gaelic verse (and, in mid-debate with Muir, no post-nineteenth-century English verse). It is Maurice Lindsay with the four editions of his Modern Scottish Poetry (1946, 1966, 1976, and 1986) who, by including verse by Sorley MacLean, Ian Campbell Hay, and Derick Thomson, deserves much of the credit for establishing the modern Scottish Renaissance as a trilingual movement, and for asserting that Muir, MacDiarmid, and MacLean belong to a unified if multi-stranded literary culture. Yet even a number of post-World War II anthologies include no Gaelic verse, notably Douglas Young's Scottish Verse 1851-1951 (1952), the revised edition of R. L. Mackie's A Book of Scottish Verse (1967), and, most strikingly, Tom Scott's two anthologies The Oxford Book of Scottish Verse (1966) and The Penguin Book of Scottish Verse (1970). In each case, Scott acknowledges that Gaelic verse is an 'essential ... part of the Scottish tradition' but expresses the hope that a separate Gaelic volume might presently be compiled by an anthologist 'better equipped for that job'.1 It is revealing that neither editors nor publishers appear to have thought that ignorance of Gaelic verse and/or failure to appoint a Gaelic-reading co-editor might significantly undermine their work.

As Scottish literature gained academic and institutional recognition during the 1960s and 1970s, anthologies of Scottish writing appeared at an almost yearly rate. Yet where anthologists continued to intervene in the Muir/MacDiarmid linguistic debate, none questioned or extended the Gaelic canon established in Maurice Lindsay's first Modern Scottish Poetry. Indeed, Lindsay himself added only one Gaelic poet to his anthology in the much-revised later editions. No other Scottish anthology of the 1960s and 1970s presented more than three Gaelic poets, viz. the triumvirate of MacLean, Hay, and Thomson, usually represented by the same signature poems. Only in the last two decades has Gaelic been granted greater space in anthologies, culminating in Douglas Dunn's Faber Book of Twentieth Century Scottish Poetry (1992) and, in particular, Roderick Watson's The Poetry of Scotland (1995). Even the latter, however, featuring twenty-two Gaelic poets out of ninety-two, falls a long way short of MacDiarmid's recommendation in his Golden Treasury that an anthology of Scottish literature chosen on literary criteria alone would be two-thirds made up of Gaelic writing. Against this background, though some translation anthologies (such as T'amar Erist'avi's 1979 Georgian anthology and Rolf Blaeser's 1982 German one) display a more catholic definition of Scottish verse, it is unsurprising that most overlook Scotland's trilingual tradition.

More perplexing, perhaps, is that most translation anthologies opt to represent a single language rather than the mixture of English and Scots historically favoured in 'indigenous' anthologies. A factor that should not be overlooked here is the non-existence in most languages of a term for 'Scots' or 'Scottish Gaelic' distinct from that for 'Scottish'. The very phrase 'Scottish poetry', translated into most languages, strongly suggests poetry in an idiom other than English. It is significant that where the two anthologies featuring only Scots verse are both anthologies of 'poesia scozzese', three of the four trilingual anthologies present 'poetry of Scotland', 'poets of contemporary Scotland', and 'poetry in Scotland today'. Of the two English-only anthologies, one presents 'Scottish poets' and the other is conceived within an English Literature syllabus.

Conversely, the editors of the four trilingual anthologies not only achieve a balance between English, Scots, and Gaelic which has only recently been approached in 'indigenous' anthologies, they also acknowledge the cross-fertilization of the three traditions. Carla Sassi, for example, in her preface to Poeti della Scozia contemporanea, argues that the bilingualism of most Scots reinforces the nation's 'creative vein' and that a 'struggle for survival' between Scotland's three languages has led to a constant exchange of linguistic innovations.2 Yet, whether anthologists see Scottish literature as a mono-, bi-, or trilingual tradition, they adopt an identical translation strategy. Verse in Scots, English, or Gaelic, multilingual, polyvocal, or synthetic, is rendered without distinction in the standard language of the target culture. Even where, as in Seguendo la traccia, different dialects of Scots are represented, they are translated into an undifferentiated literary Italian.

To an extent, where the anthologists present parallel texts, this translation strategy may reflect the assumption that their audience has a reading knowledge of English and some ability to perceive shifts in language and/or register in the original text. The facing translation is to be read less as a poem in its own right than as a key to the original, glossing non-standard terms. There are other factors, however, which may lead to linguistically simplified translations. Where much recent Scottish criticism seeks to reconcile the Renaissance concept of an 'antizygystic' meeting of extremes of register and mood with the Bakhtinian concepts of the carnivalesque and dialogic, translation anthologists largely retain those elements of Renaissance ideology which endorse an essentially monologic model of Scottish verse. The demotic, democratic, public character claimed for Scottish verse by Renaissance theorists is translated in quasi-bardic terms. Rather than a ludic intermingling of categories, modern Scottish verse becomes the literature of a community or of interwoven communities; the poet is popular conscience, oracle, or spokesperson. The Scottish poet as plain-speaking, empathetic Everyman is not easily squared with the postmodern construct of the linguistically riven agent of heteroglossia. Rather than capturing an interplay of lexicons and registers, translators variously opt for the prosaic or the Ossianic.

Equally, the presentation of twentieth-century Scottish verse as a popular revival tempts anthologists into linguistic essentialism and cultural nativism: Scottish writers follow 'hidden tracks' and seek a 'light in the mist', uncovering and reclaiming linguistic roots and racial memory. Some anthologists stress a mythic rapport with a native soil lost to contemporary English poets;3 a comparison of recent translation and 'indigenous' anthologies reveals that the former strikingly exclude verse with an urban theme or setting. The prevalent image within the English-speaking world of contemporary Scottish literature as primarily urban and realist is absent from recent foreign anthologies.

The image that thus emerges of Scottish verse as a resurgent, popular, trilingual, but in many ways monologic tradition is paradoxically reinforced by an effort to situate Scottish literature within contemporary developments in European culture. An awareness of postcolonial theory alerts anthologists to Scottish poets' ambivalent relationship to a cultural 'centre', but the presentation of Scottish writing as one of the 'new' national literatures of post-Cold War or post-Maastricht Europe again leads to a picture of Scottish verse as a militant culture speaking with one demotic voice, and invites a monolingual translation strategy. Recent anthologies of Scottish literature have largely been published within series of anthologies of postcolonial, post-imperial, or post-communist literatures. For some anthologists, it is precisely the most nationalistic elements of Scottish literature that render it European, and not the deployment of the generic 'European' themes stressed by Scottish anthologists. Scottish literature is defined as a guerilla struggle against a crudely-caricatured English hegemony; the reader is invited to feel vicarious solidarity with an unambiguously elided culture.4 Bizarrely, the 'Europe of the peoples' gives a new breath of life to the European image of Scotland as a nation of Ossianic warrior-poets (with the Scottish Assembly an unlikely Fingal's revenge).

Yet however restricted the public for a translation anthology, one must not underestimate the role of strategic and commercial considerations in simplifying the linguistic picture. Iain Galbraith's remarks on how seldom Scottish literature is seen in Germany as an autonomous entity (despite Germany's objective primacy in the translation of Scottish writers) are even more pertinent to other major European cultures. Even now, translation anthologists habitually begin by anticipating the objection that Scottish literature has long been absorbed into English. Carla Sassi is representative in writing that 'to speak today of Scottish cultural and literary tradition distinct from the English tradition may seem an anachronistic exercise, almost a caprice of cultural archaeology'.5 Where anthologists feel compelled to assert the distinctiveness of Scottish literature, and to demonstrate the existence of an indigenous tradition in the face of anticipated scepticism, they are unlikely to stress heteroglossia. The perceived need to emphasize what is most characteristic in a little-known source culture harmonizes, of course, with publishers' commercial requirements.

Even when translation anthologists are sensitive to the risk of monologism and programmatically stress the pluralism of Scottish culture, normalizing and unifying translation strategies continue to be employed. The editors of La Comète d'Halcyon skilfully select poems which depict the interlocking Scotlands of the émigré and immigrant (Black, Italian, and English), and of gay and lesbian writers. Yet here, editorial celebration of diversity is undermined by telling mistranslations, or perhaps undertranslations, absences of necessary gloss. The addressee of Christopher Whyte's elegy 'Uinneag ann am Buccleuch Street' changes gender in Christine Pagnoulle's translation (made from an intermediary English version). Appreciation of Jackie Kay's 'In my Country' depends on the knowledge that the speaker, like Kay, is black; this information is neither provided in the notes nor immediately apparent from the translation itself.

The Anglo-Scot Christopher Smart's 'Aonorach' undergoes a particularly revealing mistranslation. In her translator's preface, Christine Pagnoulle characterizes this piece as an attempt to unite Scotland's trilingual Gaelic, Scots, and English inheritance by combining all three tongues. In order to reproduce the linguistic interplay, this is the one instance in which she translates Scots not into standard French but into Walloon dialect. However, much of what she takes to be Scots is Northern English. The poem is a patchwork of Norse, Gaelic, 'Anglicized' Gaelic, Gaelic-inflected English, dialects of Scots, Scottish English, dialects of Northern English, and standard English. Smart in fact evokes an ethnic and linguistic inheritance which goes far beyond trilingualism to acknowledge Scotland's historical links with Northern England, Scandinavia, and Ireland. These mistranslations suggest that there is a limit to the degree of plurality that the translator-anthologist is disposed to transfer from source to target culture: Jackie Kay, Christopher Whyte, and Harry Smart present layers of sexual, ethnic, and linguistic complexity which remain untranslated.

Might it be, then, that the translation anthology of a minority literature is tendentially inimical to the portrayal of plurality, ambiguity, heteroglossia? Strikingly, some of Scotland's most frequently translated twentieth-century poets - Edwin Muir, W. S. Graham, Kenneth White, even George Mackay Brown - are largely absent from recent anthologies. This cannot be adequately explained by the principle that an anthology should introduce writers new to a foreign audience. Even if the above are among the few Scottish poets to have had volumes published in translation, no Scottish poet, with the exception of Kenneth White in France, has achieved wide recognition. Other poets published in volume form abroad, moreover, like MacDiarmid, MacCaig, and Morgan, regularly appear in anthologies. It is surely rather a perceived externality to Renaissance, demotic, or Calvinist traditions that determines the exclusion of certain important Scottish poets from translation anthologies. The frequent exclusion of George Mackay Brown, a staple of 'indigenous' anthologies, points to a simplification of Scotland's religious heritage even greater than that of its linguistic heritage. The non-translation of Catholic Scotland is unique to anthologies; it is perhaps not sufficiently remarked that four of Scotland's five most translated twentieth-century prose fiction writers (Conan Doyle, Cronin, Bruce Marshall, and Muriel Spark) are of Catholic background or faith.6

Perhaps the poetry anthology is more resistant to diversity than anthologies of other kinds. The urban central belt of Scotland, absent from recent translation anthologies of verse, dominates the Hungarian short story anthology Marilynre varva: mai skót novellak (1998), while the Croatian drama anthology Antologija suvremene skotske drame (1999) focuses upon religious tensions elided in both indigenous and translation anthologies. If we find a greater recognition of cultural diversity in translations published outside anthologies, then, do these also present a greater recognition of heteroglossia?

An overwhelming majority of the twentieth-century translations of individual Scottish poets recorded in the Bibliography of Scottish Literature in Translation employ an undifferentiated standard version of the target language regardless of the language or linguistic mixture of the source-text.7 Even when published in foreign anthologies of British or English-language verse, contemporary Scots verse is translated into a standard idiom. From the beginnings of the Renaissance movement, translators have stressed the historical claims of Scots to the status of a language rather than underline the hybrid or synthetic nature of the language employed by MacDiarmid and his followers. Indeed, in urging the literary pedigree of Scots, translators have often opted to employ a dominant tongue where a minority language or dialect was also at their disposal. Thus the Languedoc poet Denis Saurat, the first translator of MacDiarmid, uses French when translating from Scots, and the Sicilian poets of the Antigruppo whose translations appear in La nuova poesia scozzese employ standard Italian.8

It is only in the last twenty years that some translators have begun to use a non-standard literary language when translating modern Scots. The 1980s see translations of single poems by MacDiarmid into the dialects of Picardy and Scania (Sweden).9 These, however, are isolated experiments in contexts which favour the use of a standard language. The Picard version of a passage from 'A Drunk Man Looks at the Thistle' is immediately followed by a much lengthier extract from the same poem translated into standard French by Jacques Darras. The use of dialect as a primary translation strategy is a very recent development. Heidelinde Prüger has very recently translated William Soutar into Viennese dialect in Distln im Wind / Seeds in the Wind: Gedichtln fia Gschroppn und Grauschibln (Weitra, 1998). Scots verse by Christine De Luca and Harvey Holton is translated into the dialect of the Beskids region of Poland by Piotr Bies-Wegierczyk.10 In neither case, however, is the dialect unambiguously employed in an effort to distinguish Scots from English. Prüger opts for Viennese as an equivalent less of Scots than of the language of Soutar's 'bairn rhymes'. Bies-Wegierczyk employs the same dialect when translating the Gaelic of Aonghas MacNeacail and the English of Brian Johnstone. He is either granting all three languages of Scots an equal marginal, non-standard status, or he is primarily pressing the literary claims of his own dialect. Similarly, translations from Scots have recently appeared in the Bable dialect of Asturias, but the same idiom has been employed to translate English-language Scottish writers such as Stevenson and Barrie.11 Here again, the translator is primarily engaged in strengthening the status and expanding the resources of the target language.

In each of these rare contemporary examples of the translation of Scots into a dialect or minority language, the target idiom is, as far as possible, unmixed with a standard or majority language. The linguistic integrity of the language of translation is assured at the expense of obscuring heteroglossia in the original. To find attempts to render the dialogic interplay of Scots, we must look not to recent translations of Scots but to early nineteenth-century translations of Burns. Particularly in the German-speaking world, translators mingled a standard literary language with dialect, or with an idiom inspired by folksong or traditional ballads. In the early nineteenth century, many translators recognized Burns's language as hybrid. As the nineteenth century progresses, however, the use made of Burns by nationalist writers in Central and Eastern Europe (witness the innumerable Slavonic translations or transpositions of 'My Heart's in the Highlands') is decisive in shifting international perspectives of Burns from regional to national poet, and in changing the choice of target idiom from dialect to language. By the end of the century, Burns is almost exclusively translated into the national language even in stable, centralized literary cultures.

Paradoxically, however, the predominant twentieth-century use of a standard language to translate Scots reflects not only the increasingly prevalent view of Burns as a revivalist or cultural naturalist, but also the translator's need to demarcate the Scots of the twentieth-century Renaissance from that of Burns and such widely translated post-Burnsians as Allan Cunningham, William Motherwell, and Robert Tannahill. This is perhaps particularly the case in Germany: how better might the German translator reproduce the Scottish Renaissance writers' attempt to regenerate a diluted, sentimentalized idiom than by rejecting the pseudo-folkloric or dialectal German translations of Burns, the only translations from Scots that a German reader might be expected to know?

A further paradox is that those Slavonic and Scandinavian cultures which translate massively from Scots in the second half of the nineteenth century largely cease to do so in the twentieth, displaying little interest, despite MacDiarmid's propaganda, in the post-World War I Renaissance. Passion for Burns is now found not in the newly independent states of post-Habsburg, post-Ottoman Eastern and Central Europe, but in cultures still struggling for recognition: the Baltic states, the Soviet republics, non-Serbo-Croat Yugoslavia. While a heightened sensitivity towards marginalized or minority cultures leads to an increasing number of translations from Scots in France, Germany, and Italy, the smaller independent nations of Europe look elsewhere. One might conjecture that an empathetic interest in Scottish literature and the Scots language is to be found in cultures struggling towards autonomy rather than in those which feel themselves to be achieving it. Indeed, the latter may seek rather to dissociate themselves from still struggling literatures, however vibrant these may be. It is striking, for example, that where the Bibliography of Scottish Literature in Translation records recent translations from Scots into Bable, it has found none into Catalan or Basque. The first Catalan translation of Burns, although published only in 1917, predates the first Castilian translation, the renascent culture seeing an equivalent in Scotland while the dominant culture is wary of bolstering separatism or regionalism at home by translating foreign cultural nationalists.12 In post-Franco Spain, however, Catalan literature has sought to establish parallels instead with major world literatures, implicitly rejecting analogies with other minority literatures.

Iain Galbraith's laudable ambition to capture something of the dialogism of Scottish writing in a translation, then, has few recent precedents. Historically, in fact, heteroglossia in translation appears to be found most when Scots is regarded as a dialect or antiquated folk-idiom rather than as a language (be it 'authentic' or 'synthetic'). Nor do translations of Scots prose offer instructive examples. Here the choice of an undifferentiated standard language as a translation strategy is even more prevalent than with verse. Given growing international recognition of Scottish cultural distinctness and the success of the film version of Trainspotting, it is perhaps unsurprising that Irvine Welsh is translated into a regionally non-specific youth-speak. Yet even the earliest translators of Scott and Galt rarely attempt to differentiate their Scots dialogue from the 'English' frame. With the Scottish novel, perhaps, commercial prerogatives are more instrumental than varying perceptions of Scottish cultural identity in determining the translator's linguistic strategy.

Finally, what solutions do recent translations of Scottish verse (both in anthologies and journals) adopt regarding the presentation of Gaelic verse? Are there precedents for Iain Galbraith's desire to present both the Gaelic text and the English translation? Of the eleven anthologies discussed above, six include translations from Gaelic. Two of these, the 1979 and 1982 volumes, do not, in any event, present the originals (whether English, Scots, or Gaelic) of the poems anthologized. Three, La Comète d'Halcyon, Cerddi Gaeleg cyfoes, and Sucelice vjecnosti, present the Gaelic original with a facing translation into the target language but no English version. One, Poeti della Scozia contemporanea, exceptionally presents an English version with a facing Italian translation, but does not print the Gaelic text. This last strategy may again point to the unspoken assumption that the target readership for a translation anthology is one with a reading knowledge of English.

Most twentieth-century translations of Gaelic verse in journals - over two-thirds of those recorded in the Bibliography of Scottish Literature in Translation - are printed with neither the Gaelic original nor an English version. (The use of parallel texts remains the exception rather than the rule in translation-publishing journals.) Of the remainder, an overwhelming majority publish the Gaelic text with a facing translation into the target language. Only two journal selections of Gaelic verse - translations of Sorley MacLean by Jacques Darras in In'hui, 13 (1980) and by Peter Waterhouse in Der Prokurist, 7 (1991) - present Gaelic, English, and target-language texts. In both cases, however, the English version faces the target-language text, and the Gaelic is relegated to the foot of the page. Strangely, perhaps, no translator or editor has adopted the solution of printing parallel Gaelic and target-language texts with the English version at the foot of the page. Though a slightly foggy compromise, this might represent an answer to Iain Galbraith's dilemma.

In these rare instances where the English text is printed with the translation, the translator's prime concern is perhaps not to recapture the bilingual context from which the poem emerged. Unless translating into other Celtic tongues, it is rare for the translator of Gaelic verse to work from the original. Most, including Darras and Waterhouse, work from an English version, generally the poet's own. For Darras, Waterhouse, and the editors of Poeti della Scozia contemporanea, the decision to print the English version may be largely a question of integrity. The many translators who print the Gaelic text alone might well be criticized for omitting the actual text from which they were working.13

Here again, then, Iain Galbraith is adopting an essentially untried translation strategy. To date, a complex of ideological and pragmatic factors, generated by both source and target cultures, has prevented recognition and transfer of the polyvocal character of Scottish verse and the mixed linguistic context from which it emerges. Far from capturing the interplay of idiom and register within individual poems, translation anthologists have been slow even to acknowledge the trilingualism of Scottish literature. The identification of twentieth-century Scottish verse with the Renaissance and its legacy has led not to an understanding of the 'plastic' or 'synthetic' but to an image of militant monologism. It is to be hoped that the new anthology will finally present a more complex, modulated vision of a many-voiced literature.

Paul Barnaby
School of Advanced Study, University of London

Reprinted from 'Translation and literature', v.9, pt.2, 2000 by permission of Edinburgh University Press.


  1. The Oxford Book of Scottish Verse, edited by Tom Scott and John MacQueen (London, 1966), p. ix; The Penguin Book of Scottish Verse, edited by Tom Scott (Harmondsworth, 1970), p. 28.
  2. Poeti della Scozia contemporanea (Venice, 1992), pp. 8-9 (my translation).
  3. See, in particular, Marco Fazzini's afterward to Poeti della Scozia contemporanea, p. 182.
  4. This element is most clearly stressed in La nuova poesia scozzese, conceived as a gesture of solidarity between two peripheral areas, but remains in more recent anthologies.
  5. Poeti della Scozia contemporanea, p. 5 (my translation).
  6. Here I rely on statistics gathered in the Bibliography of Scottish Literature in Translation (accessible online through the National Library of Scotland catalogue). The fifth member of this group is Alistair MacLean.
  7. Perhaps the most striking instance of this is the use of the same standard Italian idiom to translate William Neill's Scots, Gaelic, and English poems in Stagioni, edited and translated by Andrea Fabbri and Emanuela Zocca (Faenza, 1999).
  8. See Denis Saurat, 'Le Groupe de la Renaissance écossaise', Revue anglo-américaine, April 1924, 295-307.


  9. Ivar Ch' Vavar translated a section of 'A Drunk Man Looks at the Thistle' in In'hui, 13 (1980), 14-17, and Sven Collberg translated 'O Wha's Been Here Afore Me Lass?' in Amalgam, 5 (1986).
  10. In, respectively, the journal Furcydio, 11 (1998), and the volume Wieczór szkocki (also 1998).

  11. Robert Burns, Antoloxia, translated by Alfonso Velázquez (Oviedo, 1990); J. M. Barrie, Peter Pan, translated by Pablo Antón Marín Estrada (Gijon, 1992); Robert Louis Stevenson, La isla'l tesoru (Gijon, 1993) and El casu raru del Dr. Jekyll y Mr. Hyde (Oviedo, 1995).
  12. Mariá Manent's Catalan translations of 'Of A' the Airts', 'Afton Water', and 'To Mary in Heaven' appear in La revista, 3/46 (1917), 310-11. Salvador de Madariaga's translation of 'To a Mouse' in Manojo de poesías inglesas (Cardiff, 1919), pp. 21-3, is the first Castilian translation of Burns recorded in the Bibliography of Scottish Literature in Translation. The first to be published in Spain is Robert Burns, Poesías, translated by Isabel Abelló and Tomás Lamarca (Barcelona, 1940).
  13. Again, however, it is well to remember that indigenous anthologies of Scottish verse have only recently begun to publish the Gaelic original. The anthologies by Dixon, MacDiarmid, and Lindsay, which first welcomed Gaelic into the national canon, used translations into Scots or English. It is only over the last thirty years that parallel Gaelic and English texts have become the norm.


Anthologies of Scottish Poetry in Translation, 1975-2000
  • La nuova poesia scozzese, edited by Duncan Glen and Nat Scammacca, translated by Nat Scammacca et al. (Palermo, 1976).
  • Šotlandiéri poezia, edited by T'amar Erist'avi (Tbilisi, 1979).
  • Licht im Nebel: schottische Dichtung vom 13. Jahrhundert bis zur Gegenwart, edited and translated by Rolf Blaeser (Recklinghausen, 1982).
  • Cerddi Gaeleg cyfoes: detholiad o farddoniaeth Aeleg a gyfansoddwyd yn ystod y cyfnod 1937-1982, edited and translated by John Stoddart (Cardiff, 1986).
  • ha-Shoshan ha-katan lavan: entologyah Skotit / Little White Rose: An Anthology of Scottish Poetry, edited and translated by Yair Hurvitz (Tel Aviv, 1988).
  • Six poètes écossais, edited and translated by Serge Baudot (Toulon, 1991).
  • Poeti della Scozia contemporanea, edited and translated by Carla Sassi and Marco Fazzini (Venice, 1992).
  • In the Face of Eternity / Sucelice vjecnosti, edited and translated by Giga Gracan and Tonko Maroevic (Zagreb, 1993).
  • Seguendo la traccia: poesia scozzese contemporanea, edited and translated by Andrea Fabbri, Walter Morani, and Paolo Severini (Faenza, 1997).
  • Kapu a tengerhez: Kortárs skót költok antológiája / A Gateway to the Sea: Anthology of Contemporary Scottish Poetry, edited by Nándor Balikó, András Gerevich, and Beáta Sándor (Budapest, 1998).
  • La Comète d'Halcyon: poésie en Écosse aujourd'hui, edited by John Glenday, translated by Christine Pagnoulle (Namur, 1998).

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