Rare Books - Important Acquisitions List All
Rare Book Collections works to build up the national collections through
purchases (through dealers or at auction) and donations. This directory gives details of 735 of the most important items we have acquired since 2000. We update it regularly as new material comes in. The description gives information about why it was chosen and what makes it particularly interesting. You can order the list by date of acquisition, author or title.
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Important Acquisitions 196 to 210 of 735:
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|Title||Davington Library catalogue of books, 1905|
|Date of Publication||1905|
|Notes||A rare catalogue from the library in the hamlet of Davington, between Ettrick and Eskdalemuir, Dumfriesshire, which indicates the spread of the community library in rural Scotland. It is not known when exactly this library was established - the entry in the New Statistical Account of Scotland (1845) written by Rev. William Brown mentions the growing popularity of a library lately established in Eskdalemuir parish and the 'moderate' terms of admission. However a copy of The Christian Monitor was presented to 'Eskdalemuir Library by the Rev. William Brown' in January 1831, which may indicate that a library was in the parish from the 1830s or earlier. Until then 'those fond of reading were subscribers to Westerkirk parish library', which was first established in 1792. Three years later Thomas Telford, the distinguished local and famous engineer had endowed this library and subequently that at Langholm with £1000 each. In 1868 a gift of 104 volumes was made to Davington Library by Westerkirk Parish Library. It is clear that in Eskadale there was a considerable demand for the printed word. There was a Free Church and a school in Davington , so it is possible that the library may have been funded by the church in some way.
This is the second printed catalogue of Davington library – the first, listing 755 items, dates from 1858. A total of 332 books are listed in alphabetical order by title with the press numbers and shelf letters. The stock ranged from popular periodicals such as Chambers's Journal, Good Words, Leisure Hour and Sunday at home to novels like Adam Bede, Vanity Fair, Barnaby Rudge, and The Heart of Midlothian, intriguing titles such as Abominations of modern society, How to be happy though married, Sports that kill as well as biographical and historical works.
It appears that the library at Davington (housed in the school) was in existence until c.1935; manuscript additions to the 1858 catalogue (now at Westerkirk) end with vol. 40 of the Border magazine (1935). When the school closed, possibly during the 1950s, many of the books came into the possession of Westerkirk Parish Library, others were dispersed throughout the parish and to the book trade. The remainder, c.100 volumes, were purchased by Mr. Cutteridge, Billholm, Westerkirk for £25 and the money was used to buy an encyclopedia of Eskdalemuir School.|
|Reference Sources||Shirley, G.W. Dumfriesshire libraries. 1933. 5.478
Kaufman, Paul. 'The rise of community libraries in Scotland' in Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America, vol. 59, 1965. HP1.201.1250
Crawford, John C. 'The rural community library in Scotland' in Library review, vol. 24, no.6, summer 1974. Y.183|
|Title||De' costumi e della morte di Maria Clementina Regina d'Inghilterra, di Francia, e d'Irlanda|
|Imprint||In Roma ed in Bologna|
|Date of Publication||1737|
|Notes||This is a biography of Princess Clementina, the wife of the Old Pretender. She was the granddaughter of John Sobieski, the warrior king of Poland. Her marriage took place in 1719, under the protection of Pope Clement XI, who proclaimed the pair King and Queen of England. The alliance had been vehemently opposed by the Holy Roman Emperor, who had imprisoned the young woman. She was later dramatically rescued by a band of Jacobite adventurers led by Charles Wogan. The marriage proved turbulent, and unhappy with the princess leaving her husband for a time. A reconciliation was eventually arranged, although she did not long survive it as she died in 1731. This is a very good copy of a rare edition complete with portrait, and a final leaf containing an engraved coat of arms.|
|Reference Sources||Booksellers catalogue|
|Title||De duplici statu religionis apud Scotos libri duo|
|Imprint||Romae: Typis Vaticanis, M.DC.XXVIII|
|Date of Publication||1628|
|Notes||One of four items acquired from the sale of the library of the eminent historian Hugh Trevor-Roper, Lord Dacre (1914-2003), which included a substantial number of early modern Scottish items.
Inscribed on the fly-leaf: 'Ex Libris Biblioth: Presby. Drumfr. Ex dono Joan: Hutton M.D. 1714'. John Hutton began life as a herd-boy to the Episcopalian minister of Caerlaverock, Dumfriesshire, through whose generosity he was educated. He graduated as a physician at Padua, and had a lucky break when he was the first doctor on the scene after Mary of Orange fell from a horse in Holland. Gaining the favour of William and Mary, he became their first physician when they ascended to the English throne, a role he continued under Queen Anne. Hutton made generous gifts to his family and the parish of Caerlaverock, and his bequests on his death in 1712 included the gift of his library to the ministers of the presbytery of Dumfries 'to be carefully kept in that town'.
As the physician who accompanied William of Orange to the Battle of the Boyne, Hutton seems an unlikely person to have owned this book - a discussion of religion in Scotland by a prominent 17th century Scottish Catholic and friend of Charles I. George Conn (d. 1640) was educated at the Scots Colleges of Paris and Rome: by 1628 he was a Dominican friar and secretary to Cardinal Barberini, to whom this book is dedicated. In the 1630s he was papal agent at the court of Henrietta Maria, where his work for the Catholic religion aroused English opposition. Conn left England in 1639 and died soon afterwards.
This item therefore brings together two Scots from opposing sides of the religious and political spectrum of the seventeenth century. Was Hutton curious to see how a Catholic countryman described Scottish religion? Did his European travels give him a broad-minded tolerance of other doctrines? Or did his Scottish Episcopal background give him an interest in the Stuart court? One of the other items in his library, after all, was the prayer book which Charles I carried to the scaffold. Whatever the explanation may be, this item shows that the religious divide in 17th century Scotland was not so absolute as it is sometimes portrayed.
It is not known how this item travelled from Dumfries presbytery to Hugh Trevor-Roper's library. It does bear the inscription of an earlier owner, George Kellie, Trevor-Roper's book label, and a shelf-mark presumably from Hutton's library. The library of Dumfries Presbytery was transferred to the General Assembly Library in the Tolbooth Church (now The Hub) in 1880, and from there to Edinburgh University's New College Library. However, items from the collection have occasionally turned up at sales in the past.
Bought with: A bill for the better ordering of the militia forces in that part of Great-Britain called Scotland (c.1760). Possibly a draft of a bill not enacted, this item is not in ESTC. Bound with Alexander Carlyle, The question relating to a Scots militia considered. (Edinburgh: Gavin Hamilton and John Balfour, 1760) ESTC T121729. Also with Trevor-Roper's book label.
John Major: Historia Majoris Britanniae, tam Angliae quam Scotiae ... editio nova. (Edinburgh: Apud Robertum Fribarnium, 1740). A subscription edition by the Edinburgh publisher Robert Freebairn, including his receipt for the subscription of James Sinclair (d.1762) of Rosslyn. The book contains Sinclair's armorial bookplate and his crest is on the binding. Sinclair, from a notable Scottish family, was an important figure in the British army of the period, besides being an M.P.
(Also bought with George Buchanan: Alcestis/Baptistes/Franciscanus/Sphaera, which is a separate Report item)|
|Reference Sources||DNB; Bookseller's catalogue; John V. Howard (Archivist at St Mary's Episcopal Cathedral, who has worked on the Dumfries Presbytery Library); New College Library|
|Title||De Hollandsche Wysgeer.|
|Imprint||Te Amsterdam : By Dirk onder de Linden, Bybel- en Boekverkooper, in de Kalverstraat, over de Nieuwezyds Kapel.|
|Date of Publication||1759|
|Notes||This is the complete run of an unusual and rare Dutch periodical. It covers a wide variety of subjects including natural history (with hand-coloured plates), foreign literature, the latest murder cases and developments in science and technology. The translations of literature include some Scottish texts. Most significantly there are references to James Macpherson's Europe-wide success for Ossian. Volume V contains a poetic description of the climate and landscape of the Scottish Highlands which prepares the reader for the first Dutch edition of a selection of 'Oscian' in volume VI (pp. 66-69). The translator Egbert Buys is known to have compiled at least two Dutch-English dictionaries, one of which specialized in terms used in art.|
|Author||Blackwood, Adam, ed.|
|Title||De Iezabelis Anglae parricido [sic] varii generis poemata Latina et Gallica.|
|Imprint||[Paris : s.n.]|
|Date of Publication||1587-88|
|Language||Latin, French, Italian|
|Notes||This is a very rare collection of poems in Latin, French and Italian verse lamenting the execution of Mary Queen of Scots in 1587 and attacking Queen Elizabeth and Anne Boleyn. It was probably edited, and partly written, by Mary's Scottish biographer Adam Blackwood. The poems are signed only by initials and were evidently assembled and issued in a number of different forms and arrangements, and were surreptitiously published in the years 1587 to 1588. The first six verses were evidently the first produced, and were also issued separately in quarto but in a different setting, again without title-page (only two copies of this earlier, smaller edition are known: in the Herzog August Library in Wolfenbuettel and in the BL). Some five poems appear only here, among the second sequence of poems, which was presumably issued some time in 1588. Four of the poems in this collection appear in the second (1588) edition of Adam Blackwood's most famous work "Martyre de la Royne d' Ecosse". The third edition of "Martyre de la Royne d' Ecosse", a substantially larger collection of poems, shares 24 poems with the present volume. "De Iezabelis Anglae parricido" is a mixture of elegaic poems for the executed Scottish queen and savage attacks on Elizabeth and her mother Anne Boleyn (the latter is referred to as a 'barbarr putain' [barbarous whore]); anagrams of Mary Stuart and Elizabeth Tudor draw appropriate moral praise or censure, and the French audience is whipped up by the poem 'Exhortation au peuple de France sur le trespas de la Royne d' Ecosse'. The editor of the collection Blackwood (1539-1613) was born in Dunfermline and studied in Paris, where his education was in part funded by Mary. He was appointed by her as counsellor to the parliament of Poitiers (part of her marriage settlement to the dauphin Francois), and was said to have visited Mary during in her captivity in England. Blackwood's pro-Mary propaganda had a major influence on subsequent French and Scottish national histories of the 17th century.
|Reference Sources||Oxford Dictionary of National Biography|
|Author||Thomas a Kempis|
|Title||De imitatione Christi libri quatuor. Editio novissima.|
|Imprint||Mechliniae [Mechelen] : H. Dessain, |
|Date of Publication||1885.|
|Notes||This edition of medieval monk Thomas a Kempis's famous devotional work, "The imitation of Christ" has been acquired for its modelled goatskin binding. It has been done in the style of Annie MacDonald, the Scottish bookbinder. Annie MacDonald herself invented the technique for modelling leather for bookbindings used for this binding, and other bindings produced by her and her pupils. She and a few other women in Edinburgh had only begun binding books a few years previously. Walter Biggar Blaikie (whose collection of Jacobite-related books and manuscripts is now in NLS) of the publishers A. & J. Constable let them use his workshops after hours. From 1895 two of Constable's workmen, a finisher and a forwarder, taught the group of women, who soon became known as the Edinburgh Arts and Crafts Club. MacDonald tried various types of leather for modelled bindings but found that natural goatskin, before any curing processes, could be moulded as she wanted. The modelling was done after the book itself was covered in the goatskin. It involved neither cutting nor raising the leather to relief. The design was traced onto the dampened leather and worked with one small tool called a 'Dresden', which was used to carefully press the background and mould the relief design. Using glue rather than paste to cover the books, the leather was a pale ivory when completed which developed into a richer brown once aged. Silk endpapers were used because the goatskin tended to stain both paper and vellum. The work of MacDonald and the other Edinburgh-based women inspired London bookseller Frank Karslake to found of the Guild of Women Binders in 1898 as an outlet for the sale of work by women binders who lived outside London. This particular binding is listed as no. 93 in the 1898 "Catalogue of the first exhibition of bookbinding by women", organised by Karslake. The binding is attributed to one "Miss MacLagan". The identity of the binder is further confirmed by an inscription on one of the front endpapers: Kathleen from M.D.M. 'M.D.M.' is almost certainly Mary Dalrymple Maclagan (1878-1815), one of the Edinburgh women binders. Mary Maclagan's mother was a founder member, along with Patrick Geddes, of the Edinburgh Social Union (ESU), a philanthropic organisation established to improve living conditions in slum areas of the city through housing provision, education and training, and the decoration of public spaces. Both Maclagans were active members of the ESU's guild of women bookbinders, which met regularly at the Dean Studio under the guidance of Phoebe Traquair. 'Kathleen' appears to be one Kathleen R. Pearson who has also inscribed the endpapers with: Bound Dec. 1896 K.R. Pearson - 4th Novr. 1907. This binding has an additional significance as a photographic illustration of it was used in a promotional leaflet printed in 1898 for Karslake, which described the work of the Guild of Women Binders. The binding was chosen as an example of 'the new "Edinburgh binding"; a revival of the monastic bindings of the Middle Ages & (specially suited for early printed books and Church Services)'. The design for the front board is taken from a painting of 1878 by Sir Edward Burne-Jones of an angel playing a flageolet, now held in Sudley House, Liverpool. The date of the binding, 1896, has been included in the design. On the back board there is a crucifix with hearts. The endpapers are green and gilt patterned silk. There are also two quotations concerning the text taken from Matthew Arnold and George Eliot written on the front endpapers, as well as pencil annotations at the start of the book. A further mark of provenance is a ticket on the back pastedown of the bookseller T.B. Mills, Buckingham Gate, London. |
|Reference Sources||M. Tidcombe, Women bookbinders 1880-1920, London, 1996.
|Author||Graeffe, Johann Friedrich Christoph.|
|Title||De miraculorum natura philosophiae principiis non contradicente.|
|Imprint||Helmstedt: C.G. Fleckeisen, |
|Date of Publication||1797.|
|Notes||This is a rare German Enlightenment text which systematically confutes David Hume's essay on miracles, first published in his "Philosophical essays concerning human understanding". The author, Johann Friedrich Christoph Graeffe (1754-1816), was a German Protestant theologian who studied at his hometown university in Goettingen. After working some years as a teacher and minister in the church, Graeffe eventually became a doctor of theology at the University of Helmstedt in Lower Saxony in 1797. "De miraculorum natura" was his inaugural dissertation in which he grappled with one of the typical Enlightenment problems: how could one account for miracles in the Bible using modern scientific means of explanation? As a rationalist who was also a firm believer in the veracity of the Bible, Graeffe was able to reconcile the two positions by demonstrating that the laws governing the effecting of miracles do not suspend or infringe the laws of nature. His argument thus brought him into conflict with the work of Hume, who in his essay of 1748 had regarded miracles as irrational and unlikely ever to have happened. Graeffe uses the recently published work by Immanuel Kant, "Die Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der blossen Vernunft" [Religion within the bounds of mere reason], in support of his dismissal of Hume's arguments. He returned to the theme in his later work "Philosophische Vertheidigung der Wunder Jesu und seiner Apostel" [A philosophical defence of the miracles of Jesus and his apostles], published in Goettingen in 1812. This particular copy has a 19th-century library label on the front pastedown showing that it was once in the library of Theological Seminary of Lexington, South Carolina (now the Lutheran Theological Southern Seminary of Columbia, S.C.). The library was founded in 1832 and grew rapidly. It contained a large number of German texts, including items from the personal collection of its first professor of theology, Ernest Hazelius, who had emigrated from Prussia to the USA. Due to lack of students the seminary and library moved to Newberry, South Carolina, in 1859.|
|Title||De principis Augustissimi Francisci Ducis Guisiani obitu. Paris, 1563
Blackwood, Adam. In Novae Religionis Asseclas Carmen Invenctium Ad virum illustrissimum
& 9 Others|
|Date of Publication||1563|
|Notes||It is unusual to acquire eleven mid-16th Century poems printed in Paris most of which have survived in one or two copies only. Bound together in late 17th-century sheepskin, this collection of separately printed short poetical pieces covers a range of subjects including the deaths of Henri II, the Duke of Guise and Nicholas Boileau. The principal interest to the National Library is the inclusion of two neo-Latin poems by Adam Blackwood (1539-1613). Educated at Paris University, Blackwood acquired considerable prowess in the composition of Latin poetry and enjoyed the patronage of Robert Reid, Bishop of Orkney (his great-uncle) and, most famously, Mary Queen of Scots. He is best remembered for his Apologia pro Regibus of 1581 which confronted George Buchanan's justification for Regicide, in certain circumstances, and his Martyre de la Reyne d'Ecosse of 1587 which described the harsh treatment accorded Mary Stewart during her long imprisonment in England. Blackwood was a frequent visitor to Mary during her imprisonment and his name will always be linked to her. The first of the poems in this volume is on the death of Mary's maternal Uncle, Francois, Duke of Guise at the hands of a Hugenot assassin in 1563 and the second criticises the Protestant religion and ends with a series of short verses, including four epigrams, to Mary, James Beaton, Catholic Archbishop of Glasgow, Walter Reid, Abbot of Kinloss, John Reid, John Sinclair, Dean of Restalrig and his own brother Henry Blackwood.
Provenance: 1. Contemp ink signature on title of no. 1 'P. Jamisier'; Charles Spencer, 3rd Earl of Sunderland (1674-1722); by descent to Dukes of Marlborough, with Blenheim Palace shelfmarks in ink 'D.8.112' and pencil '91 F.13' thence through the sale rooms Sunderland Library Sale, Sotheby's 1881-1883, lot 10,046. 2. Theological Institute of Connnecticut, with oval blindstamp at the beginning and end. 3. Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, with bookplates of The Woodruff Collection and Pitts Theology Library.|
|Title||De vulgi erroribus in medicina.|
|Imprint||Amsterdam: Joh. Janssonius, |
|Date of Publication||1639|
|Notes||This is the rare first overseas edition of the physician James Primrose's 'De vulgi in medicina erroribus' (literally 'Of the common mistakes [by people] in medicine'). Primrose (also known as Jacques Primerose) (1600-1659) was born and brought up in France to a Scottish family which had close links to the house of Stuart, in particular to James VI/I. The family moved to England in the 1620s and Primrose eventually moved to Hull in Yorkshire where he worked as a doctor and also built a career as a prolific and highly regarded medical author. In this book, his most popular, first published in London in 1638, he attacks the non-professional practice of medicine, and the widespread use of folk remedies by quack doctors. Two of the common errors refuted by Primrose were that the linen of the sick ought not to be changed; that remedies ought not to be rejected for their unpleasantness; and that gold boiled in broth will cure consumption. Despite his rational approach to medicine, Primrose remained devoted to the writings of ancient physicians, such as Galen, which led to him to reject William Harvey's discovery that the heart pumps blood around the body.|
|Reference Sources||Oxford Dictionary of National Biography|
|Title||De Zeeroover [The Pirate]|
|Imprint||Leeuwarden : Steenbergen van Goor,|
|Date of Publication||1825|
|Notes||The fame of Walter Scott's novels spread quickly through Continental Europe. Scott's novel "The Pirate" was written in 1821 and published in Edinburgh and London by Archibald Constable in December 1822. This is the first Dutch translation, done by the publisher Jan Willem Steenbergen van Goor (1778-1856). "The Pirate" was written after Scott's publisher, Archibald Constable had suggested he write a novel about pirates. Scott took as his inspiration the tale of the 'Orkney Pirate' John Gow, who had returned home to Orkney to lie low for a period. Gow lived a respectable life for several weeks, pretending to be an honest trader, until his cover was blown, which led to his eventual arrest and execution in 1725. |
|Author||Russell, Robert Frankland|
|Title||Deer stalking in the Highlands.|
|Imprint||[London]: J. Dickinson|
|Date of Publication||1839|
|Notes||Robert Frankland (1784-1849) was a talented amateur artist who later assumed by royal licence the surname of Russell, after Frankland, on inheriting Chequers Court in Buckinghamshire from his kinsman Sir Robert Greenhill-Russell. This volume was presumably privately printed, and was sold for "the benefit of the York and Aylesbury Infirmary". It consists of a letterpress title page and 10 lithographed plates depicting scenes of deer stalking, from pursuit to successfull kill, after drawings/sketches by Frankland Russell. This particular copy is a presentation copy from him to the Viscountess Strathallan (Lady Amelia Sophia Drummond, wife of the 6th Viscount of Strathallan), perhaps as a token of gratitude for former visits to the Strathallan estate in Stobhall, Perthshire. The book stayed in the Drummond family and was sold in 2012 as part of the library of the late 17th Earl of Perth. Only other copy is recorded, in the British Library, which has a MS title page dated '1836'.
|Title||Des Herrn Fordyce, beruehmten Professors zu Aberdeen in Engelland, Anfangsgruende der moralischen Weltweisheit; mit Herrn de Joncourt Abhandlung von der Oberherrschaft Gottes, und der sittlichen Verbindlichkeit, vermehrt.|
|Imprint||Zuerich: bey Orell und Comp.|
|Date of Publication||1757|
|Notes||David Fordyce (1711-1751) studied philosophy and mathematics at Marischal College ion Aberdeen, graduating with an MA at the age of 17. He then studied divinity, but despite obtaining a licence as a preacher, he never received a call. Instead, he was appointed professor of philosophy at Marischal College in 1742. Fordyce died in a storm off the coast of Holland at the age of 40.
Fordyce wrote an article called 'Moral philosophy' for the magazin "The Modern Preceptor". This was published separately in 1754 as "Elements of Moral Philosophy". This posthumous publication was the most successful work on moral philosophy hitherto written. By 1769 it had gone through four editions.
This is a copy of the German edition published in 1757.|
|Author||Monboddo, James Burnett, Lord|
|Title||Des Lord Monboddo Werk von dem Ursprunge und Fortgange der Sprache|
|Imprint||2 vols. Riga|
|Date of Publication||1784-1785|
|Notes||This is the first German edition, an abridged translation of volumes 1-3,of Monboddo's seminal work Of the origin and progress of language, which was published in six volumes between 1773 and 1792. It is in fact the only translation of any of his works, published until the 1970s. The translation by E.A. Schmid, was prefaced with a translation by Johann Gottfried von Herder, the leading German philsopher. Herder praised the broad philosophical perspective from which Monboddo approached the topic of the origin of language. Although he believed that Monboddo did not have sufficient anatomical information to maintain the humanity of the orang-outang (one of the controversial claims made in vol.I), Herder did not think that this critique impacted on the thrust of the Scot's theory. Monboddo's claims that the men in the Nicobar Islands had tails and that the orang-outang was a class of the human species, lacking only speech, were ridiculed by his contemporaries including David Hume and Lord Kames. His linguistic descriptions were largely ignored. Herder was one critic who took a broader view, believing that Monboddo's comparison of a variety of languages of different cultures opened a new field of inquiry.
According to Cloyd 'it is probable that Monboddo had influence in Germany, on Jacob Grimm and the other great nineteenth-century students of language ... German studies came closer to following directions suggested by Monboddo than British studies did; but there is nothing to indicate that he had any real influence in either place ... '.
Monboddo (1714-1799), one of the key figures of the Scottish Englightenment, was born on the family estate of Monboddo in Kincardineshire, studied law at Edinburgh and Groningen, and was called to the bar in 1737. He rose through the legal hierarchy and became a Lord of Session in 1767. A member of the Select Society, he was a close friend of James Boswell. His other major work was Antient metaphysics, published in six volumes between 1779 and 1799.|
|Reference Sources||Cloyd, E.L. James Burnett Lord Monboddo. (Oxford, 1972) NC.273.h.20
Jooken, Lieve. The linguistic conceptions of Lord Monboddo (1714-1799) (Leuven, 1996) HP2.97.2761|
|Author||Ramsay, Andrew Michael|
|Title||Des Ritters Ramsay reisender Cyrus|
|Imprint||Hamburg: heirs of Thomas von Wiering|
|Date of Publication||1728|
|Notes||This is the first German edition of this important novel by a Scottish-born writer. Andrew Michael Ramsay (1686-1743) was a philosopher and mystic who converted to Catholicism but continued to argue for the underlying unity of all religions. Spending much of his adult life in Paris, he served the exiled Jacobite court and befriended David Hume; he also gave hospitality to the Glasgow printers Andrew and Robert Foulis. In 1727 he published 'Les voyages de Cyrus', and an English translation entitled 'The travels of Cyrus'appeared the same year. Based on the life of the first Persian emperor known as Cyrus the Great, this work anticipates the development of the novel during the later 18th century. The hero travels around the Mediterranean, learning about religion and morality in preparation for becoming ruler over many nations.|
|Reference Sources||G. D. Henderson, 'Chevalier Ramsay', 1952|
|Title||Descriptive sketch of the print of the death of Gen. Sir Ralph Abercrombie.|
|Imprint||London: John P. Thompson|
|Date of Publication||1804|
|Language||English and French|
|Notes||This broadside is a guide to a print depicting the death of General Sir Ralph Abercromby in Egypt in 1801. The death of Abercromby at the Battle of Alexandria was recorded by a number of painters including James Northcote, Philip de Loutherburg and Samuel James Arnold. It is likely that the print was based on the work of one of these painters. Abercromby was born in Menstrie, Clackmannanshire, in 1734. He was educated in Alloa and Rugby before studying law at the universities of Edinburgh and Leipzig. His military career began in 1758 during the Seven Years War. For a number of years in the 1770s he sat in Parliament as an MP for Clackmannanshire. The French Revolutionary Wars revived Abercromby's military career - he fought in Flanders and the West Indies, then served briefly in Ireland before the rebellion of 1798. In 1800 Abercromby was appointed as commander of the British forces in the Mediterranean. In the process of routing the French at Abu Qir Bay, near Alexandria in March 1801, he was fatally wounded. He was later buried on Malta. Abercromby was a popular figure in the British army and his death elevated him to hero-status among the general public. Curiously, although the imprint gives the date as 1804, the paper has a watermark dated 1809! The publisher was John Peter Thompson, who worked as an engraver, printer and printerseller in Great Newport Street, London from 1792 to 1813.|