In 1715, the British throne was threatened by supporters of the House of Stuart.
With a rising of James VIII's followers imminent, the Government arrested many leading English Jacobites. France, exhausted by years of war, seemed unlikely to play a part in supporting the cause of the 'Old Pretender'.
Despite these setbacks, on 6 September 1715 at Braemar the Earl of Mar raised the standard of James VIII and the rising began.
Jacobites camp at Perth
The Jacobites quickly gathered large numbers of men and in September they captured Perth and established their camp.
Government forces in Scotland under the command of John Campbell, Duke of Argyll, were initially too few to seriously challenge the Jacobites.
A party of Jacobites crossed the Forth and gathered supporters from the north of England as they marched south.
On 13 November Mar's forces clashed with Argyll's at the indecisive Battle of Sheriffmuir and, on the same day, the Jacobites in England were defeated at Preston in Lancashire.
Holding his disheartened army in position at Perth, Mar awaited the arrival of James with the hoped-for aid from France.
James VIII arrives
James VIII's arrival in Britain continued was anticipated by both friend and foe.
Finally James landed at Peterhead on 22 December 1715, but with no support from France who could not risk another war with Britain.
Retreat and defeat
While the Jacobite army continued to be depleted by desertion, the Government was able to bring more troops north and began to advance on Perth.
Retreating to Montrose, James knew the rising was over. He abandoned his army and sailed back to France on 4 February 1716. The Earl of Mar and a small party of high ranking Jacobites accompanied him.
Exile and punishment
Many of the Jacobite leaders in Scotland went into exile to escape charges of high treason.
Locally, due to the close ties of Scottish élite society, there was little appetite for severe punishments.
Those captured at Preston and tried in England, however, were to face jail, transportation and execution.